Machilipatnam is a city and the district headquarters
of Krishna district, located in Coastal Andhra region of Andhra Pradesh, India. During British
rule, the city was their first trading settlement on the Bay of Bengal coast, when it was also
known as Masulipatnam or Masula, and as Bandar in folklore. It is located at a distance of
72 km to the east of the state capital Vijayawada. History The town has existed since the 3rd century
BCE when, according to Ptolemy, it was known as Maisolos. The Periplus of the Erythraean
Sea calls it Masalia in the 1st century BCE. The port is located on the southeastern, or
Coromandel Coast, of India. Situated in the mouth of the River Krishna on the Bay of Bengal,
the Masula port saw flourishing sea trade. Muslin clothes were traded by ancient Greeks
from Masulipatam and the name ‘Muslin’ originated from the name Maisolos. The chief merchandise
of Maisolia, eagerly sought for by the merchants from the Roman world, was muslin-so favourite
a wear with fashionable Roman ladies of that age that a legend has it that an ounce of
muslin used to sell in Rome for an ounce of gold. Because of this Roman gold coins poured
into Maisolia. Several Roman coins were found during excavations of Buddhist towns located
near Masulipatnam. The naming of the eastern gate of Charminar
as Machili-Kaman testifies the symbiotic relationship between port and the capital. There were Arab
merchants in the area at least since the 13th century. The Portuguese controlled what they
called Masulipatão between 1598 and 1610, when they vacated the place. The East India
Company built its first factory in India in Masulipatnam. It was a 17th-century port for
French, British and Dutch trade. The port has a medium-size fishing harbour which can
accommodate 350 fishing vessels and an active carpet-weaving industry. The other products
from the town include rice, oilseeds and scientific instruments. This town is a railway terminus
and an important educational centre. Andhra Bank was established in 1923 at Machilipatnam.
The Machilipatnam’s another name is Bandar And in this area Bandar Laddoo is famous.
The area is vulnerable to storm surges caused by the frequent cyclones in the Bay of Bengal.
The 2004 Tsunami affected many fishing villages around Machilipatnam. The Government and NGOs
are involved in rebuilding and reconstructing devastated villages.
The Machilipatnam Port was established by the French and Dutch Countries people during
19th Ninetheenth Century and there is now a Demand for Port to Establish in Machilipatnam
. There are many strikes held in this area for the circumstances to establish a Port.
Geography Machilipatnam city is located at 16.17°N
81.13°E / 16.17; 81.13 on the southeast coast of India and in the east corner of Andhra
Pradesh. The city has an average elevation of 14 meters. River in Machilipatnam
Climate Machilipatnam city gets most of its annual
rainfall due to the southwest monsoon. It has a tropical savanna climate with hot summers
and moderate winters. The hottest months are between April and June. The average normal
rainfall in the district is 959 millimetres. Machilipatnam city is frequently hit by cyclones
originating in the Bay of Bengal. The Andhra Pradesh coast between Ongole and Machilipatnam
is vulnerable to high surges of the sea due to cyclones. The 1977 Andhra Pradesh cyclone
crossed the coast near Nizampatnam and took approximately 10,000 lives. As the storm approached
the coast, gale winds reaching 200 km/h lashed Prakasam, Guntur, Krishna, East Godavari and
West Godavari districts. A storm surge, 5 metres high, inundated the Krishna estuary
and the coast south of Machilipatnam city On 8 December 2004, a high capacity S-Band
Doppler cyclone warning radar was installed, commissioned and made operational at the city.
It was purchased from a German manufacturer, Gematronik. With the installation of the radar,
the state will be better equipped to track cyclones by the onset of monsoon, according
to an official from the State Met Office talking to the newspaper The Hindu. This facility
will monitor the 960 km long coastline of the state. The radar’s information is posted
in real-time on the Indian Meteorological Department website. Similar radars were installed
in other coastal cities forming an S-Band Cyclone Detection Radar Network.
Politics and administration For administrative purposes, Machilipatnam
falls into the Bandar revenue division of the Krishna District. It is a special grade
municipality with 36 panchayats and 28 villages. The city area covers an area of 28 km2. Machilipatnam
is a parliament constituency in Andhra Pradesh. It is governed by the Collector and the District
Magistrate of the Krishna district. It is one of the earliest municipality in Andhra
Pradesh. Politicians of Machilipatnam
Konakalla Narayana Rao(TDP) Kollu Ravindra(TDP)
Economy Machilipatnam has big industries. Fashion
gold ornaments produced there. Agriculture is the most important occupation, with rice
being the main food crop. Bharat Electronics Limited, a unit of the Union Defence Ministry,
of the Government of India, operates a manufacturing unit in Machilipatnam. BEL is involved in
design, development and manufacture of Opto-electronic equipments that are used by the Indian Defence
Services and paramilitary organisations. It also produces cyclone detection radar under
the IMD Department of Science and Technology. Demographics
As of the 2001 India census, Machilipatnam Municipality had a population of 183,370.
The population has since decreased to 170,119 in 2011 as nearly 30,000 people migrated to
surrounding villages such as Potepalli and Navinmittal colony. Males constitute 50% of
the population and females 50%. Machilipatnam has an average literacy rate of 83.32%, higher
than the national average of 70.04%: male literacy is 86.73%, and female literacy is
80.05%. In Machilipatnam, 8% of the population is under 6 years of age.
Culture Muslims tend to speak Urdu. Women of all cultures
and faiths typically wear the traditional Indian dress, the sari – sometimes Salwar
Kameez. People in Machilipatnam practice Hinduism, Islam and Christianity. Hindus and Christians
speak Telugu. The city is well known for sweet dishes called
Bandar Laddu, Musr Laddu and Bandar Halwa. Literary organisations
Sri Ramakrishna Natya Mandali, founded by Dr. Jandhyala Radha Krishna, conducts mythological
dramas. Bharathiya Sahitya Parishad, Indian Cultural Association, Hasya Lasya, Kalasagar,
Padmasree Gantasala Samscruthika Sangam and Yuva Vedica are some of the leading literary
missions active. The literary organisation Saahithee Mitrulu was established in Machilipatnam
in 1981 by Dr. Ravi Ranga Rao. It has conducted literary and cultural programmes since then
without pause, functioning chiefly to bring out the creative skills of youth and new writers;
it has published at least 66 books of literature and treating of language and culture. In 1999,
the organisation conducted the “Sathaavadhaanam” of Rallabandi Kavitha Prasad, created a history.
Kuchipudi Kuchipudi, a popular Indian Classical Dance
form originated at Kuchipudi, 25 kilometres from Machilipatnam. The dance form is in practice
in Machilipatnam. Arts and crafts
The Kalamkari fabrics of Machilipatnam and Kalahasti, with their intricate designs, are
used in clothing and wall hangings. Kalamkari refers to dye-painted cloths and the technique
used to create them. Their name derives from kalam, for a pen-like tool used to draw outlines
on the cloth, and kari. Fabrics are outlined with a cotton-tipped bamboo stick and dyed
in vegetable or mineral colours. The process involves washing, rinsing, soaking and bleaching
muslin, and applying mordants and dyes using natural substances like indigo for blue, madder
for red, mango bark and dried myrobalan fruit for yellow, palm sugar and rusted iron for
black. The dyeing process is very elaborate and can take several days to complete. While
some pieces are hand-drawn, large canvas and sheets are block-printed. The work done in
Machilipatnam, often using block printing in conjunction with hand painting, features
decorative floral and vegetable designs that appealed to local kingdoms and to export trade.
This culminated in European demand for Machilipatnam chintz, which derives its name from the Hindi
word chint. Machilipatnam is also famous for imitation jewellery called Chilakalapudi Bangram
– an industry involving over 200 companies and 30000 artisans. The jewellery is exported
to countries in South East and Middle East Asia and is also sold domestically to the
South Indian film industry. Weaving of sarees and cloth is another primary occupation.
Cuisine Seafood is the most famous and delicious food;
it is part of the servings in many restaurants served in Andhra, along with other cuisines.
Sweets, mainly Bandar Laddu and Bandar Halwa, are also very famous here.
Tourism Machilipatnam is a city with a rich history
of foreign conquests, business and trade. The relics of Bandar Kota can be visited.
The old light house is still standing. Temples Sri Sri Virat Vishwakarma Temple In Machilipatnam,
Lakshmanarao Puram, Vishwabrahmana Colony, Machilipatnam – 2 Construction on the Krishna
District Under Constructed By Brahmasri Kandamuri Ravikumar & Brahmasri Sriram Syam Prasad.
Sri Venkateswara Swamy Temple, Batchupet, Sri Nageswara Swamy Temple, Kojjillipet, Sri
Ramalingeswara and Sri Ranganayakaswamy Temples, R.Pet and Sri Bhadradri Sri Ramulavari Temple,
Main Road, are the most famous temples in Machlipatnam.
Sai Devalayam at the district court centre of Machilipatnam is the main attraction of
the town. It has the biggest statue of Sri Saibaba of Shirdi. The Indian Book of Records
has recognised it as the “Tallest Saibaba statue” by Shri. BLV Rao and Shri. Srinivas
Kishan on 25 August 2011. Dattashram is a pilgrimage site on the coast.
Dattashram has an ancient Shiva temple and a recently built Datta temple. Manginapudi
is popularly known as “Datta Rameswaram” due to the consecration of 12 wells for bathing.
Panduranga Swamy temple at Chilakalapudi near the city, is a famous pilgrimage site. It
is a temple of Lord Vishnu, said to be similar to the temple at Pandaripur.
Sivaganga Temple is a historical temple maintained by Challapalli jameendars rather than the
Government. It is one of the oldest temples in the area. Located on the Avanigadda road,
it attracts tourists and devotees all through the year. On Shivaratri major celebrations
are carried out by the temple trustees. Anjaneya Swami Temple, in Paraspet, was built
by Samarth Ramdas, the guru of Chatrapathi Sivaji. Ghantasala, 21 km from Machilipatnam.
It includes the remains of an old Buddhist stupa.
Agastheeswara Temple, 36 km from Machilipatnam, is a temple of Lord Shiva and pilgrimage site.
At this temple Lord Shiva is called by the name Ekaratri Mallikarjunaswamy. An annual
festival is celebrated here and the deities are taken out in procession. At Gudivada,
North west of Machilipatnam, visitors are attracted by the old ruins of the stupas.
Further up the coast of Machilipatnam there are five temples dedicated to Lord Shiva.
These ancient temples are located at Amravati, Samalkot, Bhimavaram, Draksharama and Chebrolu.
Prasanna Anjaneya Swamy temple, located at Godugupet, has a history of over hundred years.
The Jodugudlu temple in Edepalli is also one of the oldest temples with more than 150 years
of history. The remple was built during the 19th century, by Velama Doralu which is a
social group found mainly in Andhra Pradesh. Velamas are classed as “warrior caste”. The
temple was handed over to the Endowments Department in the year 1936. Currently the temple has
been developed by an un-organised group. Beaches
The beaches in Machilipatnam city are long, broad, pristine, and with pale blonde sands.
Apart from Manginapudi beach, Palletummalapalem is a beach side fishing hamlet 11 kilometres
from Machilipatnam; it is well known for its scenic beauty and also as a historic port
city. During its heyday this port served as a gateway to India. The beach has a natural
bay with shallow waters. Recently access to the beach was recently banned due to some
natural holes appearing underwater. The most famous beach being manginipudi beach.
The Sri Ganganamma Temple was constructed in the year of 1977 when the great cyclone
came i.e. uppena at Rajupet, Machilipatnam. The Sree Ramalam temple is 2 kilometres from
Road The National highway NH-9 from Pune via Hyderabad
and Vijayawada is being extended to Bandar Fort through Machilipatnam. A coastal National
highway NH-214A from Kattipudi to Ongole via Machilipatnam was sanctioned 4 years ago.
Rail Machilipatnam railway station,South Indian
Railway station built by British to link with Shipping Yard and Public Transportation..
on a branch line linked to the Visakhapatnam-Vijayawada section of Howrah-Chennai main line, is well
connected to important cities of India. The nearest city is Vijayawada, the south central
railway’s important railway station and junction. There are eleven passenger trains to Vijayawada,
one fast passenger to Visakhapatnam and express trains to Secunderabad, Tirupathi and Bangalore.
Sea Navayuga won GO to build a sea port in Machilipatnam.
Currently the government is in the process of acquiring land for the port development.
Air The nearest airport is Gannavaram Airport
near Vijayawada, about 76 km away. Media
The city receives television and radio transmission from across the country. There are scores
of news and entertainment channels in Telugu language. Infact, more channels operate in
Telugu regional language, than in any language in India.
All major print media are in circulation. The major Telugu dailies include the Eenadu,
Surya, Vaartha, Andhra Jyothi, Andhra Bhoomi, Saakshi and Andhra Prabha. The major English
dailies are The Deccan Chronicle,The Hans India, Business Standard, The Hindu, The Times
of India, The Indian Express and The Economic Times.
Education Machilipatnam is an ancient and famous educational
center. The Noble College Machilipatnam is one of the first four colleges in India and
the first college in Andhra Pradesh. There are two other colleges with histories related
to India’s fight for independence, namely The Hindu College and The National College.
Kendriya Vidyalaya is the only school maintained by Government of India in Machilipatnam which
was established in 1994. This has best teaching staff from all over India making it the only
Metropolitan school in Machilipatnam with English & Hindi medium of teaching. Because
of its limited number of seats, one have to undergo an Entrance test to get admission.
In the olden days many people used to come to Machilipatnam to get better education.
Machilipatnam is an educational center, offering all academic courses except Medicine. It has
public and privately run schools. The local Hindu college and allied institutions offer
courses ranging from kindergarten to postgraduate. There are several Telugu language and English
language schools. Daita Madhusudana Sastry, the former secretary and correspondent of
the Hindu college and allied institutions, was instrumental in the establishment and
expansion of most of the educational institutions in Machilipatnam.
Krishna University has been established in Machilipatnam as the Headquarters of Krishna
District in 2008 for Higher education and University offers 9 postgraduate courses including
M.A., MSc, MSc, M.Pharmacy, M.B.A and M.C.A. Sports
Cricket & Badminton are popular sports in Machilipatnam. District level & regional matches
are played at various college grounds in Machilipatnam. See also
List of cities in Andhra Pradesh Villages in Machilipatnam mandal
References External links
Andhra Pradesh Beaches