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The Fermi Paradox — Where Are All The Aliens? (1/2)

The Fermi Paradox — Where Are All The Aliens? (1/2)


Are we the only living things in the entire universe? The observable universe is about 90 billion light years in diameter. There are at least one hundred billion galaxies, each with one hundred to one thousand billion stars. Recently, we’ve learned that planets are very common too. And, there are probably trillions and trillions of habitable planets in the universe. Which means, there should be lots of opportunity for life to develop and exist. But where is it? Shouldn’t the universe be teaming with spaceships? Let’s take a step back. Even if there are alien civilizations in other galaxies, there’s no way we’ll ever know about them. Basically, everything outside our direct galactic neighborhood, the so called “Local Group”, is pretty much out of our reach forever, because of the expansion of the universe. Even if we had really fast spaceships, it would literally take billions of years to reach these places, traveling through the emptiest areas in the universe. So, let’s focus on the Milky Way. The Milky Way is our home galaxy. It consists of up the four hundred billion stars. That’s a lot of stars, roughly ten thousand for every grain of sand on earth. There are about twenty billion sunlike stars in the Milky Way, and estimates suggest that a fifth of them, have an earth sized planet in it’s habitable zone, the area with conditions that enable life to exist. If only zero point one percent of those planet harbor life, there would be one million planets with life in the milky way. But wait, there’s more. The Milky Way is about thirteen billion years old. In the beginning, it would not have been a good place for life, because things exploded a lot. But after one to two billion years, the first habitable planet was born. Earth is only four billions years old, so there have probably been trillions of chances for life to develop on other planets in the past. If only a single one of them had developed into a space traveling super civilization, we would have noticed by now. What would such a civilization look like? There are three categories. A type one civilization would be able to access the whole energy available on its planet. In case you are wondering, we are currently around zero point seven three on the scale, and we should reach type one sometime in the next couple hundred years. Type two would be a civilization capable of harnessing all of the energy of its home star. This would require some serious science fiction, but it is doable in principle. Concepts like the Dyson Sphere, a giant complex surrounding the sun, would be conceivable. Type three is a civilization that basically controls it’s whole galaxy and its energy An alien race this advanced would probably be godlike to us. But why should we be able to see such an alien civilization in the first place? If we were to build generation spaceships that could sustain a population for around one-thousand years, we could colonize the whole galaxy in two million years. Sounds like a long time, but remember, the milky way is huge. So, if it takes a couple of million years to colonize the entire galaxy, and there are possibly millions, if not billions of planets that sustain life in the milky way, and these other life forms have had considerably more time than we’ve had, then, where are all the aliens? This, is the Fermi Paradox, and nobody has an answer to it. But we do have some ideas. Let’s talk about filters. A filter in this context represents a barrier that is really hard for life to overcome. They come in various degrees of scary. One: There are Great Filters and we’ve passed them. Maybe it is way harder for complex life to develop then we think. The process, allowing life to begin, hasn’t yet been completely figured out, and the conditions required may be really complicated. Maybe in the past, the Universe was way more hostile, and only recently things have cooled down to make complex life possible. This would also mean that we may be unique, or at least one of the first, if not the first civilization in the entire Universe. Two: There are Great Filters and they are ahead of us. This one, would be really really bad. Maybe life on our level exists everywhere in the Universe but it gets destroyed when it reaches a certain point, a point that lies ahead of us. For example, awesome future technology exists, but when activated, it destroys the planet. The last words of every advanced civilization would be: “This new device will solve all of our problems, once I push this button!” If this is true, then we are closer to the end then the beginning of human existence. Or, maybe there is an ancient type three civilization, that monitors the universe, and once a civilization is advanced enough, it gets eliminated, in an instant. Maybe there is something out there, that it would be better not to discover. There is no way for us to know. One final thought: maybe we are alone. Right now, we have no evidence that there’s any life besides us. Nothing. The Universe appears to be empty and dead. No ones sending us messages, no one answering our calls. We may be completely alone, trapped on a tiny moist mud ball in an eternal Universe. Does that thought scare you? If it does, you are having the correct emotional reaction. If we let life on this planet die, perhaps there would be no life left in the Universe. Life would be gone, maybe forever. If this is the case, we just have to venture to the stars and become the first Type Three civilization, To keep the delicate flame of life existing, and to spread it until the universe breathes its final breath, and vanishes into oblivion. The universe is too beautiful not to be experienced by someone. This video was made possible by your support. It takes at least 200 hours to make one of our videos, and thanks to your contributions on Patreon, we are slowly able to do more and more of them. If you want to help us out, and get your own personal bird for example, check out the Patreon page.

Comments (100)

  1. There's brand new stuff in the Kurzgesagt Merch Shop. Check it out here: shop.kurzgesagt.org

  2. This shit is so one-sided and stupid. Instead of addressing any actual problems of the fermi paradox he addresses completely random Hollywood bullshit.

  3. The chance there are aliens and the chance its only us,is.just as scary.

  4. Aliens look at Earth through a past perspective, due to the fact that the time it takes for the light of the present to reach the alien observer would mean that, once they've witnessed it, we'll be long dead. So, observers looking at Earth at the moment from a distant world will be observing the past, rather than the present, so they'd be unaware of the human race

  5. Seriously, why would any civilization want to do any business with us ? If they exist, they probably figured out there are 100 more interesting ways of using their energy than interacting with us. Apparently we need them more than they need us. Do you realize the level of retardation on this planet, we might not even qualify as intelligent species, perhaps other civilizations think there are only animals living here, according to their standards, and human activities are similar to the occupation of cattle. Our planet however is a jewel of such incredible beauty, everywhere you look, from the most simple plain to stunning lansdcapes. Shame our civilization does not mirror its home.

  6. god has a plan for all aliens, or other things!

  7. Life is out there. But it's a far away from us. We aren't developed enough to find them.

  8. And maybe
    The government just want you to know that we're alone
    If you find a dragon in the forest
    I'm pretty Sure you Wanna keep it For yourself and don't Sell it for some cash

  9. dont listen to zi germans

  10. we will find them once they are ready to let us, until we mature they will stay hidden!.

  11. Is no one not going to point out the pokemom in the beginning of the video? Okay..

  12. Did I just see a Pokemon at 0:29??

  13. and the question would be : what is the purpose of the universe if there is nobody to know that there is hahahahaha

  14. Interesting vid. then i started to read comments and became dumb again.

  15. What if the only advanced civilization is in another local group and trying to find a way to get to ours and helps us advance but they cant

  16. @ 1:00 is that the starship "Insula Tergum" from the "Prophet" graphic novels?

  17. Our signals do not even go that much out of our solar system and you decided you know every thing. There is more life under earth then above it. And we know almost nothing about it. We probably dont know anything at all.

  18. What if the universe itself is alive, just not in the way as we perceive life.

  19. Humans are just gonna creat aliens with some bio stuff

  20. In the name of Kane!

  21. Aliens probably look like us. You can't make a civilization more beautiful than yours.

  22. What if religions find out that their gods are aliens we've been talking about.

  23. Type 10 civilization has the power to make fortnite a playable game

  24. 1:15 so for every grain of sand on Earth there are 10k stars in the milky way?

    That math does not work. There are more than 40 billion grains of sand on Earth. Vastly more.

  25. If we use the Warp maybe we can do some space crusade..

  26. “It would not have been a good place for life because things exploded a lot”
    This is a great channel

  27. Was that a Magnemite ? Lol

  28. Aliens: Damn, these guys are all kinds of f*cked up. It’s a good thing we got Mr. Rogers out of there and got him his own space condo!

  29. 0:24 – Magnemite
    0:30 – T.A.R.D.I.S.

  30. Well I’m thoroughly unsettled

  31. Two minutes to midnight?

  32. There might be microbial life on venus… maybe

  33. You won’t be able to arrive another star group as maby there a strangelets

  34. 4:15 IN THE NAME OF KANE!

  35. Dhmis called. They WANT THERE CAMPUTOR BACK 0:16 top right corner

  36. Ship from Sidonia no Kishi? Nice!

  37. -Are we alone in the Universe?
    -Yes, we are
    -So there is no other life out there?
    -There is… They are alone, too…

  38. Just a point :
    We can NEVER reach the others local groups, ore maybe 1 or 2 that are the closest to us.
    Why ? Because they escape our reach faster than the speed of light.
    By conventional travel, it will be impossible. But by space distortion (like Alcubiere, and others), maybe ? If it's possible though

  39. Aren't we gravitationally bound to the Virgo cluster? If true, the Hubble flow shouldn't be applicable between us and the Virgo cluster.

  40. 2:57 – The way you describe it isn't the original Fermi paradox.

  41. Kurzgesagt is a bunch of bull. I don't believe scientists know how many grains of sand there are on earth.

  42. Your math is questionable at times over the course of a number of videos…points are on par most of the time, but dude, do the math yourself before including it in videos. 400b stars (ignoring the fact that most scientist say 200b) and you say that's 10,000 for every grain of sand on Earth. That would be 40 million grains of sand on Earth…pretty sure there's a hell of a lot more than that. Like, that's probably on one small beach. When scientist compare grains of sand on Earth to stars it's every star in the universe not the Galaxy.

  43. Or maybe it's because even though the nearest notice board is only on Alpha Centuri, we humans just can't be bothered to take an interest in local events.

  44. What ignorant scenarios..

  45. Thanks to kurzgesagt, i am being more and more skeptical about my existence than ever

  46. なんか感動した

  47. 00:01 is that a magnemite

  48. If you don't believe in God you going to hell 😡

  49. I don't know if we are alone in the universe, but I know that Kosovo is SERBIA.

  50. how did they figure out the universe is 90 billion lightyears in diameter if we can only see 13.8 billion lightyears in all direction?

  51. How many worlds and cultures awaits us…

  52. 0:18 has a don’t hug me im scared reference in the top right

  53. Wait, so you mean to tell me there are around 40,000,000‬ grains of sand on Earth? Huh, I thought this number would be way bigger…

  54. 0:27 catch the pokemon !

  55. The andromeda galaxy is actually getting closer to us and is set to collide in the next couple billion years

  56. It might be cool if in a couple million years humans are the elder race of the galaxy and watching aliens go through their equivalent of the 1950s "It came from outer space" craze in movies.

  57. Now there are an estimated 2 trillion Galaxies in the observable universe.

  58. Its so weird once the universe dies out theres Nothing left

  59. 0:22 Is that the computer from Don't Hug Me I'm Scared?

    DON'T TOUCH MEEEEEEEEEEEE!

  60. There's a great fiction book called "The Humans" by Matt Haig that begins with the premise that there are other life forms monitoring humanity to make sure we don't discover certain things about the universe. It's a really wonderful read if you're ever feeling like "why am I here?" or that humanity is terrible. But it also highlights that alien races may not even want to contact us because we're just not ready.

    Also, I feel like people's notions of "other life" in the universe is so biased by what happens on Earth. We assume there isn't life on other planets because they don't have the conditions that we were forged in. There could be countless other possibilities that we couldn't even dream of because we just don't have the ability to comprehend them. All knowledge that we have is subjective to human discovery, i.e. if we haven't discovered it it doesn't "exist", so there are probably beings already out there that we don't even know how to look for.

  61. I suspect science community is waiting a long time ago to confirm there is alien life and already knows it, by logic, but doesn't risks to state it. I mean, there's no way, no logic, there isn't intelligent life other than human. Wouldn't that be a complete waste of universe not to mention it would put us at the center of it like once man did in regard to the solar system. I'm not a scientist but one thing I know, the unknown might not guide itself by the same rule book as us and therefore this "need" to confirm or check like humans do might not apply. In another option we might be under watch by some alien kind or just being forgotten by them as they have a completely different set of everything appart from us.

  62. What about AI transporting genetic material to hospitable planets and then initializing s breeding programme? What about AI setting up communication hubs? What about just sending simple messages? Seems like it will inevitably happen within our own species future (even if it most likely won't be categorised as the same species by then). Confusing all together. I wonder if other galaxies would be doable as well. Billions of years is a blink of a non-existent eye to a non-sentient being in the form of a frozen fertilised egg.

  63. The arrogance of thinking alien life can only exist if it comes here!!

  64. 5:35 –5:53 bit of a contradiction

  65. Finally we control our entire galax- holy fuck is that a giant chicken

  66. Maybe we're the first very intelligent species, or the older civilizations haven't advanced near our rate, or they simply don't care.

  67. What a truly wondrous thing the void is. The fact the universe is endless is sort of hard to wrap my head around considering all I've known is the sky's limit. It really is something I'd like to know or learn of someday…

  68. This is the great filter. Mathematical Game Theory. In all biological groups there are cheats (about 3%) (retaliators about 7%) and suckers- about (90%). It is in the vested interest of the cheats to control all politics/ culture/ art and media. They use this culture of falsehood to control the 97% and specifically to destroy the 7% that could trhreaten them. Only if humans can reign in the 3% can civilisation or the planet survive.

  69. Hey isn't most of this expanding universe stuff based on a theory about redshifted galaxies being further away.
    I thought people were slowly coming to the concept that this might actually not have anything to do with relative distance, due to anomalies like quasars and the like allways being redshifted.

  70. 0:29 So I can find Pokémons in the space

  71. Just a friendly reminder from an insignificant human : Hong Kong uses Tradition Chinese, like Taiwan does. The only difference is Hong Kong speaks Cantonese and Taiwan speaks Taiwanese. SIMPLIFIED CHINESE is only use in CHINA. And speak Mandarin

  72. They used Sidonia at 1:03

  73. 10,000 stars for every grain of sand? So there are only 40 million grains of sand on earth?

  74. So no one recently noticed that they used the Sidonia as the generational ship that travels billions of years to the next galaxy? XD

  75. This video is just spreading hysteria. We do need to get off this planet, but only because we've trashed the place. I don't think that warrants spreading like a disease across the entire fucking galaxy.
    YOU ARE GOING TO DIE, GET OVER IT AND STOP TRYING TO DRAG LITERALLY EVERYTHING ELSE DOWN WITH YOU

  76. Maybe consciousness in the great filter? Even is there are alien does not mean they are conscious and know of their existant

  77. anyone notice the computer from dont hug me im scared in the beginning?

  78. 0:24
    A PLANET OF MAGNEMITE……

  79. 0:16 the first thing I did was start singing don't hug me I'm scared I AM A COMPUTER

  80. All the outcomes seem sad and depressing ffs

  81. 00:1 is that a magnimite down there?

  82. I liked the knights of sidonia that was pretty good

  83. I'm sorry to have to correct the creator of this video but you have made a monumental mathematical error roughly 1 min 20 seconds in. You stated that in the Milky Way galaxy had about 400 billion stars. This is not supported by any known data. The scientific consensus regarding quantity of solar masses puts that figure at no more than 250 billion stars, but most likely less. The Andromeda galaxy has 1 trillion, respectively. You claimed that for every grain of sand "on earth" there exists approximately 10 thousand stars in the galaxy. This is the most outrageous and utterly ridiculous thing I have ever heard in all my life. Ridiculous because of one one simple fact: There are more grains of sand in the world than there are stars in more than 15 Andromeda galaxies; yes, that's right, more than 15 trillion grains of sand on planet earth. Every beach, every surface of every ocean and sea, every dessert. PLEASE do the mathematics before you create a video for the public who may not know any better. Thanks.

  84. 3 possible reasons:

    1) Not every civilization use human ways of communication, ie electromagnetic spectrum transmission.

    2) Our telescopes are not good enough to see inside planets in our galaxy. And if there are spaceships flying around the galaxy it would be too tiny and would not be visible in our telescopes. Interstellar travel also causes gravitational displacement causing it to be invisible while these spaceships are in motion.

    3) There is evidence of other civilizations and the governments are not telling us.

  85. He said there’s 400 billion stars in this galaxy which is 10000 stars for every grain of sand on earth which means there’s 40 million grains of sand on earth that can’t be right

  86. 1:11
    is this correct? Thar are FAR more grains of sand on earth than 40 million , no ?

  87. Yeah… we ain't ever leaving earth, like ever it is our prison and if we succeed (which we won't) we will die

  88. That's why mom says to study because she wants me to make a Dyson sphere

  89. 0:02

    BRUHH

    MAGNEMITE CONFIRMED IS ALIEN

  90. What if then, what we create and believe enough to exist the exists. Cause In the video there is a Daleks and if there is a Dalek there has to be a Doctor.

  91. If the story in some of holy book are true, maybe human are an alien in Earth. You know, Adam and Eve transported to Earth, they wasn't born in Earth right?

  92. Aliens would probably discover us light years from now because thats how light wave travels. I HOPE WE SURVIVE UPTO THAT.

  93. 1:11–1:21
    so you are teling me there are only forty million grains of sand on earth
    400.000.000.000:10.000=40.000.000

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