Press the Bell Icon to never miss a video from Testbook.com Namashkaar Friends and Welcome to this video! Today we will talk about 2018 Nobel Prize Winners and their Achievements. But, before proceeding further answer this one question. Do you know which Institute presents the Award for Economic Science? If you have watched our previous video about Nobel Prize History and Key Facts then you will definitely able to answer this question. In all total of Five Nobel Awards are presented. Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine. Nobel Prize in Physics, Chemistry, Literature/Peace and Economic Sciences. First of all we will talk about Nobel Prize in Physics. This year i.e in 2018 Nobel Prize in Physics is distributed among three people. Arthur Ashkin, Gerard Mourou and Donna Strickland. They were awarded for their breakthrough method in the field of high intensity, ultra-short-optical pulse. Donna Strickland was born on 27 May 1959 in Guelph, Canada After Mary Curie and Maria Mayer, she is the third woman to receive the Nobel Prize for Physics. In the year 1981, she obtained a degree in Physics Engineering from McMaster University in Hamilton, Ontario and a doctorate from Rochester University in New York. Strickland was a Research Assistant in Canada’s National Research Council in Ottawa from 1988 to 1991. From 1991 to 1992, she worked in the laser division of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in California. Now, lets know about Arthur Ashkin. Arthur Ashkin was born on 2nd May, 1922. He lives in in Rumson, New Jersey. Arthur Ashkin is regarded as the father in the field of optical tweezers. In the year 1960s, Arthur Ashkin started his work with Laser Light which resulted in the invention of optical tweezers in 1986. He also started the optical flying process, which are useful for making changes in atoms, molecules, and biological cells. Ashkin received a degree from James Madison High School in Brooklyn in 1940. After this he attended Columbia University and worked as a technician for the Columbia Radiation Lab. While working as a technician for the Columbia Radiation Lab, he worked to create magnet for U.S. military radar systems. Now we will talk about Nobel Prize in Chemistry. Nobel Prize in Chemistry is also distributed between 3 people. Francis Arnold, George Smith and Gregory Winter are presented with Nobel Award. This Nobel Award was presented for the guided development of enzymes in chemistry. Lets know about Frances Arnold. Francis Arnold was born in July 25, 1956. She is the fifth woman to win the Nobel Prize in the field of chemistry. She graduated from the University of California in Pharmacy in 1985. She is currently a Professor of Chemical Engineering, Bioengineering and Biochemistry at the California Institute of Technology. Now, let’s talk about George P Smith. George P Smith was born in 1941 in United States. He obtained a Ph.D. degree from Harvard University, USA in 1970. He is currently a professor in the Department of Biological Sciences at the University of Missouri, Columbia, USA. Let’s talk about Gregory P Winter. Gregory P Winter was born in 1951, in Leicester, England. He completed his PhD in year 1976. He is the Research Head of the MRC Laboratory at Cambridge University, England. Let’s know about the Nobel Award in the category of Physiology / Medicine. For the discovery of cancer therapy through inhibition of negative immune regulation, James P. Ellison and Tasuku Honjo were presented with Nobel Prize. Who is James P. Ellison? James P. Ellison was born on August 7, 1948. He is an American immunologist. James is the Director of Scientific Advisory Council at Cancer Research Institute (CRI). Now let’s know about Tasuku Honjo, who is born on January 27, 1942. In 2016, he was awarded with Kyoto Prize for the discovery of the Mechanism Responsible for the Functional Diversification of Antibodies. Now, let’s find out who got Nobel Peace Prize. Dennis Mukewege and Nadia Murad has been awarded for their efforts to end sexual violence in the war-torn areas of the world. Dennis is also known as Dr. Miracle. Dennis has also received the European Parliament’s Sakharov Award in 2014. Dennis Mukwege is a Gynecologist in the African country Congo. Together with his colleagues he has treated 30 thousand victims of gang-rape in Congo. Nadia Murad was born in Kozo, Iraq in 1993. 25 years old Nadia Murad is among those three thousand Yadidi girls who had to be imprisoned by the Islamic State. Nadia Murad is a Yazidi human rights activist of Iraq and the founder of the campaign. Now let’s know who received award for Economic Sciences. William Nordhaus and Paul Romer were awarded Nobel Prize in Economic Science for their work on climate issues and technological innovation. William Nordhaus was born on May 31, 1941. William Nordhaus is an economist and professor at Yale University. William Nordhaus is known for his work on the loss due to climate change. Paul Michael Romer is an American economist. He is born on November 7, 1955. He is known as a pioneer of endogenous growth theory. Romer has done most important work in the field of economic development. This was the list of 2018 Nobel Prize Winners. Do share your views about this video in the comment section. Like this video and share with your friends. Subscribe to Testbook’s YouTube Channel and do not forget to click on the Bell Icon. Thank you for watching this video and All the Best!